Benefits of Using 3D Printers in Modern Learning Environments #MakerEducation

K12 061019 3DprintingPerfcon png

Interesting post from EdTechMagazine.

Once a novelty in many classrooms and makerspaces, 3D printers are again flourishing as valuable classroom tools thanks to advanced technology, lower costs and more products and services geared toward K–12 education. 

Both manufacturers and educators are leveraging the benefits of 3D printers in education. 3D modeling and printers can bring almost any educational concept to life, while building practical skills such as problem-solving, creative coding and design.

Read more.

Maskless Microfabrication: Nanoscribe Releases Quantum X

Germany-headquartered Nanoscribe has just announced the formal release of their Quantum X device, presenting the new technology at the LASER World of Photonics in Munich (running from June 24-27). Continuing in their mission to target industrial users engaged in microfabrication endeavors, this launch expands on their additive manufacturing systems for nano- and microscale projects.

The Nanoscribe development team created Quantum X specifically for highly-precise micro-optics, offering a powerful combination with grayscale lithography and two-photon polymerization technology.

“Quantum X provides a more flexible, straightforward and cost-effective maskless lithography solution for various use cases,” reports Nanoscribe in their latest press release sent to 3DPrint.com. “Within its compact housing, prototypes of refractive and diffractive microoptics, as well as, polymer masters are produced. The system features an industrial form factor with intuitive and ready-to-use interfaces for process control.”

Nanoscribe created this new technology in response to the high demand for manufacturing in applications like:

  • Sensors
  • Mobile devices
  • Data
  • Telecommunications

Quantum X is Nanoscribe’s new maskless lithography system for the fabrication of refractive and diffractive micro-optics with the highest precision.

Microfabrication work can be completed quickly and accurately, relying on three cameras for live monitoring and process control. Users can look forward to benefits like faster development, shorter design iteration cycles, greater affordability, rapid production, and a more expedient printing process overall. Nearly any 2.5D shape can be created on the microscale, a feat Nanoscribe states was previously impossible, now ‘paving the way to new or strongly enhanced optical elements from imaging, illumination, to sensing.’

Multilevel diffractive optical elements (DOE) are produced in one scanning plane, as laser power is modulated—resulting in excellent contouring capabilities for more efficient fabrication of:

  • Single optical elements
  • Spherical and aspherical lenses
  • Arrays with high fill factors up to 100 percent

“Quantum X developers have put great effort to excel in advanced user-machine interactions,” states the Nanoscribe team.

A touchscreen is built-in for monitoring jobs, adjusting parameters, and seeing the print in real time—along with a software wizard that guides users through the entire cycle of a print job. The software will accept images of optical designs up to 32-bit resolution like BMP, PNG, or TIFF. A wide range of feature heights are possible in each scan field, and quasi-continuous topographies can be manufactured in one step. The AM approach allows users to expand beyond traditional limitations in height, throughput, and resolution.

Quantum X intuitive touchscreen panel offers process control, job status and print job queue. (Photo: Chris Frühe)

“The fabrication process with Quantum X allows a wide range of substrates, including transparent and opaque ones, accepting sizes of up to six-inch wafers. Working with this new device avoids costly mask fabrication, spin-coating, and pre- or post-baking when used with Nanoscribe photoresins. These resin materials are easy to handle, allow high aspect ratios and enable high structures, approaching the limits of the physically possible,” states Nanoscribe.

Micro-optics directly printed on a two-inch wafer without the need for additional lithography steps or mask fabrication.

Micro-optics directly printed on a two-inch wafer without the need for additional lithography steps or mask fabrication.

Nanoscribe has been a dynamic presence in the world of printing and microfabrication for years, growing with one innovation after another—from extensive collaborations to a variety of different technologies and processes. What do you think of this news? Let us know your thoughts! Join the discussion of this and other 3D printing topics at 3DPrintBoard.com.

[Source / Images: Nanoscribe]

 

3D Printing News Briefs: June 25, 2019

Recently, HP released its sustainable impact report for 2018, which is the first item we’ll tell you about in our 3D Printing News Briefs. Then it’s on to more good news – the 3D Factory Incubator in Barcelona is reporting a very positive first 100 days in business, while AMUG has named the winners from its Technical Competition. We’ll close with some metal 3D printing – Nanoscribe published a fly-over video that illustrates the design freedom of nano- and microscale 3D printing, and Laser Lines is now a UK reseller for Xact Metal.

HP Releases 2018 Sustainable Impact Report

HP recycling bottle shred: Through its recycling programs, HP is transforming how we design, deliver, recover, repair, and reuse our products and solutions for a circular future.

HP has released its Sustainable Impact Report for 2018, which talks about the company’s latest advancements in achieving more sustainable impact across its business, as well as the communities it serves, in order to create a better green future. Its sustainability programs drove over $900 million in new revenue last year, and the report shows how HP is using 3D printing to drive a sustainable industrial revolution, such as reducing the amount of materials it uses and expanding its recycling program. The report also states new commitments the company set for itself in order to drive a low-carbon, circular economy.

“Companies have critically important roles to play in solving societal challenges, and we continue to reinvent HP to meet the needs of our changing world. This isn’t a nice to do, it’s a business imperative,” explained Dion Weisler, the President and CEO of HP Inc. “Brands that lead with purpose and stand for more than the products they sell will create the most value for customers, shareholders and society as a whole. Together with our partners, we will build on our progress and find innovative new ways to turn the challenges of today into the opportunities of tomorrow.”

To learn more about HP’s efforts to reduce the carbon footprint, such as investing in an initiative to keep post-consumer plastic from entering our waterways and the recycling program it started with new partner SmileDirectClub, visit the company’s dedicated Sustainable Impact website.

Successful First 100 Days at 3D Factory Incubator

On February 11th, 2019, 3D Factory Incubator – the first European incubator of 3D printing – was officially inaugurated in Barcelona. It’s now been over 100 days since the launch, and things are going very well. In that time period, the incubator is reporting a total of 15,000 3D printed pieces, and 20 incubated companies, and still has room for more interested projects, though all its private spaces are now occupied. The original goal is to incubate 100 companies in 5 years, and it seems as if 3D Factory Incubator is well on its way.

Located in the Zona Franca Industrial Estate, the unique initiative is led by El Consorci de Zona Franca de Barcelona (CZFB) and the Fundación LEITAT, and has received an investment of €3 million. The goal of the incubator is promote the growth of 3D printing initiatives, and there are a wide variety of companies hosted there, including consumer goods, a logistics company, healthcare companies, design initiatives, and mobility.

AMUG Technical Competition Winners Announced

(top) Erika Berg’s digitally printed helmet liner components and Riddell’s SpeedFlex Precision Diamond Helmet; (left) Maddie Frank’s cello, and (right) Bill Braune’s Master Chief reproduction.

At the Additive Manufacturing Users Group (AMUG) Conference in April, 17 entries were on display to compete for the gold in the annual Technical Competition of excellence in additive manufacturing. The winners have finally been announced, and it seems like the panel of judges had a hard time deciding – they were unable to break the tie in the Advanced Finishing category. Maddie Frank of the University of Wisconsin, with her 3D printed electric cello, and Bill Braune of Met-L-Flo, with his 30 inch-tall model of “The Master Chief” Halo video game character, are co-winners in this category for their attention to detail and “exceptional execution,” while Erika Berg of Carbon won the Advanced Applications category with her digitally printed helmet liner for Riddell’s SpeedFlex Precision Diamond Helmet.

“The 17 entries in the Technical Competition were amazing in their beauty, innovation, and practicality,” said Mark Barfoot, AMUG past president and coordinator of the Technical Competition. “Our panel of judges deliberated at length to make the final decision.”

The winners each received a commemorative award, as well as complimentary admission to next year’s AMUG Conference.

Nanoscribe Shows off Design Freedom in Fly-Over Video

The versatility sample impressively illustrates the capabilities of Photonic Professional systems in 3D Microfabrication.

German company Nanoscribe, which manufactures and supplies high-resolution 3D printers for the nanoscale and microscale, is showing the world how its systems can up many opportunities in 3D microfabrication, with a new fly-over video, which truly highlights the design freedom it can offer when making 3D microparts with submicron features. The video shows actual scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of extreme filigree structures that were 3D printed on its Photonic Professional GT2.

From a variety of angles, you can see diverse geometries, which show off just how versatile Nanoscribe’s high-resolution 3D printing can be – all 18 of the objects and structures were printed in just over an hour. The company’s microfabrication technology makes it possible to create designs, like undercuts and curved shapes, and customizable topographies that would have been extremely difficult to do otherwise. To streamline the microfabrication process for its customers, Nanoscribe offers ready-to-use Solution Sets for its Photonic Professional GT2 printers, which, according to the company, “are based on the most suitable combination of precision optics, a broad range of materials and sophisticated software recipes for specific applications and scales.”

Xact Metal Names Laser Lines New UK Reseller

Pennsylvaniastartup Xact Metal welcomes Laser Lines – a total solutions provider of 3D printers and laser equipment – as a UK reseller for its metal 3D printers. These machines, which offer extremely compact footprints, are meant for customers in high-performance industries that require high-throughput and print speed, such as medical and aerospace. Laser Lines will immediately begin distributing the Xact Metal XM200C and XM200S systems, as well as the XM300C model once it becomes available next year.

“We are delighted to be the chosen UK supplier for Xact Metal, whose metal printing systems are establishing new levels of price and performance. Making quality metal printing accessible requires innovation. Xact Metal’s printing technology is built on the patent-pending Xact Core – a high speed gantry system platform where light, simple mirrors move quickly and consistently above the powder-bed on an X-Y axis. It’s another step change for our industry and opens a whole range of exciting opportunities,” stated Mark Tyrtania, the Sales Director at Laser Lines.

Discuss these and other 3D printing topics at 3DPrintBoard.com or share your thoughts in the Facebook comments below.

Boom Supersonic Working with VELO3D to Make Metal 3D Printed Hardware for Supersonic Flight Demonstrator

Metal 3D printing startup VELO3D came out of stealth mode last year with its innovative, support-free laser powder bed fusion process that offers a lot more design freedom than most metal systems. Since the company commercialized in 2018, it’s made known that aerospace manufacturing is one of its largest target markets, and since that time at least two OEMs in that industry are using its Sapphire 3D printing systems to make parts. Now, it has just announced a partnership with Colorado-based Boom Supersonic – the company working to build the fastest supersonic airliner in history.

“Boom is reimagining the entire commercial aircraft experience, from the design, build, and materials used. Our technology is designed to help innovators like Boom rethink what’s possible, empower advanced designs with little or no post-processing, and enable an entirely new approach to production,” said VELO3D’s CEO Benny Buller. “Boom needed more than just prototypes and we’re thrilled to help them create the first 3D-printed metal parts for an aircraft that will move faster than the speed of sound.”

Boom, founded in 2014 and backed by several investors, employs over 130 people to help realize its vision: use supersonic travel to make the world significantly more accessible to the people who live in it. The company wants to bring businesses, families, and cultures closer together, and has recognized that 3D printing will help speed up the process. Recently, Boom renewed its existing partnership with Stratasys in order to create 3D printed parts for its XB-1 supersonic demonstrator aircraft, which is exactly what VELO3D will be doing as well.

“High-speed air travel relies on technology that is proven to be safe, reliable, and efficient, and by partnering with VELO3D we’re aligning ourselves with a leader in additive manufacturing that will print the flight hardware for XB-1. VELO3D helped us understand the capabilities and limitations of metal additive manufacturing and the positive impact it would potentially have on our supersonic aircraft,” said Mike Jagemann, the Head of XB-1 Production for Boom Supersonic. “We look forward to sharing details about the aircraft development and improved system performance once XB-1 takes flight.”

The 55-seat, Mach-2.2 (1,687 mph) aircraft is the first supersonic jet to be independently developed, and is made up of over 3,700 parts, combined with multiple advanced technologies, such as a refined delta wing platform, an efficient variable-geometry propulsion system, and advanced carbon fiber composites. Because the demonstrator aircraft – a validation platform called the “Baby Boom” – has such demanding precision, performance, and functional requirements in order to reliably provide safe and efficient travel, Boom is using VELO3D’s Intelligent Fusion technology to make the metal flight hardware for the jet, as it offers more design freedom, process control, and quality assurance; these qualities are essential in challenging design environments.

Boom is also working with VELO3D in order to leverage its customer support partnership, market expertise, and ability to guarantee consistent production quality. The supersonic flight company hopes that by utilizing metal 3D printing, it will be able to improve system performance and speed up the development of its XB-1 – which should eventually fly at twice the speed of sound – and any future aircraft as well.


The two companies have already conducted validation trials together, which were successful in their accurate performance and achieving the desired results. VELO3D developed two 3D printed titanium flight hardware parts, which will be part of the ECS system and make sure that the supersonic aircraft is able to conduct safe flights in any conditions; these parts will be installed on the prototype aircraft early next year.

In addition, the company also 3D printed some engine “mice” for Boom, which were used to validate the additive process.

Engine “mice” as 3D printed on the VELO3D Sapphire system

“The mice allow for high engine operating line testing, ensuring we can achieve safe flight at all conditions,” Ryan Bocook, a manufacturing engineer at Boom Supersonic, said in a VELO3D blog post.

“The 3D printed mice helped Boom execute the test plan and validate predictions, and furthers the success of the program.”

These mice helped to facilitate testing, which included flow distortion simulation at the inlet, by decreasing the nozzle area in order to help simulate stall conditions while the engine is running from part power to mil power.

Not only did Boom Supersonic receive 3D printed flight hardware out of its partnership with VELO3D, but the company’s engineers also had the chance to familiarize themselves with the limitations and capabilities of 3D printing in terms of supersonic aircraft.

Discuss this story, and other 3D printing topics, at 3DPrintBoard.com, or share your thoughts in the Facebook comments below.

[Source/Images: VELO3D]

Additive Manufacturing Processes Improve NDFeB & Organic Magnets

In ‘Analysis of 3D printed NDFeB polymer bonded and organic based magnets,’ Chimaobi Ibeh—a thesis student from New Jersey Institute of Technology—explains that industrial users in many cases today are more interested in miniaturization of electronics, allowing for maximum latitude in design as well as reducing cost, and wasted materials. Ibeh’s goal is to promote additive manufacturing processed with NdFeB bonded and organic based magnetic materials, hoping to ‘open doors to new applications in magnetism.’

“Recent research studies have made magnets the future candidates for new sensor and actuator applications, electric motors and smart materials/systems,” explains Ibeh.

“The improvement of permanent magnets (PM) have shown the ability to slow down the energy consumption and increase energy efficiency,” state the authors. “PM with the combination of the advancements of semiconductor electronics such as MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors) and IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistors) have brought 3 innovations to the electric motors, power electronics and intelligent controllers.”

Ibeh also adds that with greater knowledge about SmCo and NdFeB, common magnetic materials, energy efficiency can be greatly improved. Nd2Fe14B is the most powerful PM available in the world but is extremely costly. In terms of techniques used to create magnets, AM processes have good potential, beyond the obvious benefits of prototyping with plastics like PLA and ABS. Miniaturization is in greater demand, and Ibeh sees the application of AM methods opening the door to applications like sensors.

“Organic based magnets are a new emerging class that bring unique material properties and will further the development in magnet fabrication,” states the author, also going on to point out that extrusion printing of NdFeB bonded magnets has been successful previously.

NdFeB is an RE-Fe-B bonded composite, consisting of melt-spun RE-Fe-B powder and polyamide (PA12) binder, and offering the ‘best overall magnetic performance in the classes of hard magnets.’ Previous research and experimentation with net shape NdFeB magnets resulted in complex, small-scale designs, which the author points out is hard to achieve with other techniques—especially because the alloy is delicate. Parameters must be just right to achieve the correct density and quality.

NdFeB Bonded Composites Granules used for the experiment.

In attempting to fabricate magnets from RE organic materials, researchers seek the following properties:

  • Low density
  • Transparency
  • Electrical insulation
  • Low-temperature

    Magnetic and Physical Properties of the NdFeB bonded composite fabrication

“The next big challenge for scientists is to create many new high-spin molecules that possess energy gaps, an order of magnitude greater, at room temperature as well as kinetic stability that rivals the most stable organic monoradicals,” concluded Ibeh.

“Combining the development of organic based magnets with AM methods will further bring new and interesting innovation to the technological world we live in.”

The photograph of printed magnets of various shapes. The left object, expanded view on the bottom image, demonstrate the full power of 3D printing very complex shape, a novel functionality to the hard magnets

SEM images of samples bonded magnet NdFeB with variation of rubber binder.

Individuals new to 3D printing may be floored by the countless innovations being introduced into nearly every industry around the world today, but in delving further, the depth with which the science of materials is being explored—and mined—is even more fascinating. And the learning continues for users on every level. Composites are becoming more popular than ever, from materials meant to promote thermal management to bioprinting, along with efforts to further miniaturization. Learn more about magnetization in 3D printing here. What do you think of this news? Let us know your thoughts! Join the discussion of this and other 3D printing topics at 3DPrintBoard.com.

Periodic table highlighting the rare earth minerals.

[Source / Images: Analysis of 3D printed NDFeB polymer bonded and organic based magnets]

3D Printed Continuous Flow Reactor Analyzes Degradation of Acetaminophen in Urine

In ‘Ultraviolet photolysis of acetaminophen in a 3D printed continuous flow reactor,’ thesis student John Goetze is not only exploring the benefits of urine as fertilizer but also experimenting with 3D printing devices that could be used in the field to pinpoint degradation of chemicals like pharmaceuticals that are harmful to agriculture. While many consumers may be leery about their potential food supply being sprayed with a supply of urine from the public, even worse would be ingesting the surprising amounts of unmetabolized pharmaceuticals. Degradation of residual medications could render the use of urine as a possibility, however.

Farmers rely on fertilizers rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) to encourage the growth of healthy plants. Human urine contains all these nutrients, and especially phosphorus. Goetze explains that numerous studies have shown that while phosphorus is necessary to many different applications, it is expected to be depleted in as little as 50 years.

“Phosphorus is the most important of NPK when considering urine for its fertilizer value. Source separation of urine maximizes its value for fertilizer. Obtaining phosphorus from wastewater is more difficult, as it is diluted and possibly contaminated with other materials auxiliary to those in urine. Widespread source separation in developed countries would require retrofitting of current sanitation facilities,” states Goetze.

Pharmaceuticals do present an issue, however, posing ‘ecotoxicological risk,’ mainly by NSAIDs, antibiotics, and carbamazepine. And while much of the benefits of prescribed (or not) drugs are metabolized, large portions may still be left to pass through the urine.

The concentration of selected drugs in the general population sourced urine and drug concentrations in lettuce and soil after urine was added to field plots.

For the purposes of this study, Goetze used acetaminophen, which is also commonly referred to as paracetamol. The author used this over-the-counter pain reliever for the following reasons:

  • Measured consistently in wastewater
  • Easy to obtain
  • Can be measured with UV spectroscopy
  • Absorbs UV light

For this research, the author used Kroger 500 mg acetaminophen caplets. They were crushed and mixed with deionized water, then stirred and heated, until the solution was diluted enough for analysis. Aqueous acetaminophen concentrations were chosen at 2.5 ppm, with the consideration that previous research shows urine from public events measuring 0.5 ppm.

Goetz 3D printed most of the parts (nine, in total) for the continuous flow reactor, designing them in SOLIDWORKS and then using a MakerBot Replicator 2 FDM printer with PLA.

“Trials showed that more acetaminophen is degraded as residence time and light intensity increase. Continuous flow reactor performance is comparable to MFR and PFR idealized models with respect to residence time. Data corresponds more closely to the ideal reactor models as light intensity decreases. Pseudo-first order rate constants (k’) were determined using a best fit of MFR and PFR models to the data at each separate intensity. Rate constants increased linearly with light intensity,” concluded the author.

Up to 80 percent of the acetaminophen was degraded in the experimental conditions of the continuous flow reactor. This demonstrates that levels of the pharmaceutical can be significantly reduced via UV photolysis. The reactor design can be easily scaled up, since the specialized components can be produced quickly with 3D printing. Artificial light sources producing an intense 254 nm wavelength are commonly available on the consumer market. The lack of catalysts and oxidizers reduces costs and eliminates some materials access barriers. The reactor, artificial light, and pump apparatus can be applied quickly and cost-effectively in laboratory or industrial settings. The photolysis data from this study can inform the design of future applications.”

Experimental apparatus for continuous flow trials. Equipment includes 254 nm light source (A), syringe
pump (B), 3D printed reactor (C), and UV-vis flow cell (D).

3D printing has been connected with innovation in diagnostic devices due to the ease in design and production, and affordability in manufacturing—especially in the medical field, from innovations for detecting cancer to malaria and even tuberculosis. What do you think of this news? Let us know your thoughts! Join the discussion of this and other 3D printing topics at 3DPrintBoard.com.

[Source / Images: ‘Ultraviolet photolysis of acetaminophen in a 3D printed continuous flow reactor’]

 

Interview with Ganit Goldstein on Craft, Technology, Fashion & 3D Printing

Ganit Goldstein

Ganit Goldstein is a Designer whose interest lies in the intersection between Craft and Technology. Ganit studied Jewelry and Fashion. She received the Excellence Award from Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design, Jerusalem, Israel. Her work is focusing on new methods of incorporating 3D Printing into the world of Textiles, Shoes and Fashion. In her Collection ‘Between The Layers’, she created garments and shoes, inspired by her study of ‘IKAT’ weaving in Tokyo, Japan. Her collection received great interest and immediate press recognition, and was presented at Exhibitions and Museums around the world including Milan Design week, New York Textile Month, Asian Art Musuem – San Francisco, Holon Design Museum, ‘TALENTE’ exhibition in Munich and more. Ganit Goldstein believes in an interdisciplinary approach to design- mixing Tradition with Futuristic techniques – 3D printing & 3D body scanning.

Give us some background on your experiences so far.

I studied at Bezalel Academy of Arts in Design and majored in the department of Fashion and Jewelry. Since my first year of study, I was fascinated by using 3D design software, especially because of the design-freedom it allowed me. During my studies, I have often incorporated tools from other disciplines into my work, whether it is CNC, laser cutting, 3D scanning and 3D printing. The use of different tools and mindsets helped me discover my own desig language.

During my third year of study, I was expected to participate in an exchange student program. My decision was to apply for the opposite direction of what I was used to. Meaning, the opposite of the cutting-edge technology field. I found my way to the Craft Department ’Textile Art’ program at Tokyo University of the Arts – GEIDAI. During this time, every single process of my designs was made using traditional handmade techniques. Meaning, I turned completely low-tech, changing my entire thinking structures and patterns. That was very significant for me in terms of expanding my horizons and changing my view on design. Talk about stepping out of your comfort zone! When I finished my studies in Tokyo, I went back to Jerusalem to finish my final project. That’s when I decided to combine the traditional methods I recently learned, with the latest technology I was working on before. This was translating both worlds of the past and future into one design language.

Since my graduation, I was lucky to participate as a finalist in four international competitions, presented my projects in New York Textile Month, Hong Kong Fashion Week, Asian Art Museum- San Francisco and ‘Talente’ exhibition in Munich. These competitions helped me a lot to reach my goals, discover possibilities, and meet great people that influence my work until this day.

Craft and Technology Outfit

When did you first get excited about fashion and design?

I was excited to mix the borders between art and fashion, back in high school, when my project consisted of dresses made from broken glass and metal wires. I was looking at garments as a platform to make art pieces, that aren’t necessarily meant to be worn, but rather a manifestation of aesthetics, culture, language, and design. 

One exhibition that is very powerful in my memory is a solo exhibition (2014) of Iris Van  Herpen at the Design Museum Holon. The exhibition was very special and it featured beautiful outfits, that crossed borders between art, fashion, and futuristic techniques. It was influential for me because it dealt, or perhaps answered the question of whether fashion can be presented at museums as art pieces.  

When you did your first 3D printing project with fashion?

As part of my second-year curriculum study, we were asked to reconstruct costumes from the 18th- 19th centuries. I was asked to build an entire costume, made up of 7 different layers, just as it was made back in the history of fashion. The dress I was assigned to reconstruct is held by The Metropolitan Museum of Art (Costume Institute collections) – from the year 1870. This decade was a “golden decade” for lace dresses.  In the next semester, we were asked to think about the outfit in a modern perspective, and I was focusing on the lace. I decided to design and create a 3D lace of our times, based on algorithms printed with hard material, combining flexible properties inside the printed part. This was the first time I used 3D printing as an integral working method in my designs, and that’s when I discovered the huge potential in using algorithms, software and parametric design in the process of my work.

During my studies, and especially due to this project, I began working closely with the Institute of Chemistry – Casali Center at the Hebrew University, for innovative research in 3D printing. The research group, led by Prof. S. Magdassi, focuses on materials science, nanotechnology and their applications in a variety of fields such as 3D and functional printing.

This collaboration gave me the opportunity to work with great researchers, and thus better understand the different approach for material research studies, working on innovations in the field of 3D printing.

How important is the differentiation of fully created 3D printed items vs hybridized fashion products from textiles and 3D printed material?

The harmony of putting together two different worlds makes the innovation approach, and bring forward a new way of thinking about design. I believe in taking the essence of the traditional techniques from our past and translate those methods to the new technology- a different point of view from the traditional technique inside the process of the newest technology.

I feel it is important to make the hybrid of textiles and 3D printing together because it has the power to bring 3D printing to a much more wearable level. I also understand that fully 3D printed fashion is still in a building stage, and the combination of traditional textile methods helps this method is growing quicker. Hybridized craft methods in 3D printing are important in my opinion because we should not lose sight of the traditional processes. Technology will always move forward, but craft methods can disappear easily. I believe it is important for the designers also to remember the traditional working processes, not to lose the history of crafts. Bridging the craft methods and technology to move forward with the latest technology.

Craft and Technology Shoe

What are some of your favorite projects that you have worked on in 3D printing?

Seeing the first 3D printed multi-color shoes that were made in collaboration with Stratasys was an extremely exciting moment. In these shoes, my aim was to create a fabric-like texture inside the printing process. I couldn’t hope for better results. Since my graduation presentation, the shoes were presented in exhibitions worldwide (the last exhibition was in Milan Design Week 2019). Most of the people I have met during the exhibitions were sure the shoes are made from fabric and not from 3D printing. The shoes are now part of the Holon Design Museum permanent collection, they were the first pair I made together with Stratasys. We made a few more designs, but nothing compares to the success and joy that was brought by my first pair.

One of the most exciting projects that has had a huge impact on my projects so far, was working in collaboration with Intel ‘RealSense’ studio in Jerusalem. We incorporated their technology into the design process by 3D scanning an entire body thus allowing to create customized fashion and accessories, designed for a specific person. We also launched together an AR App (made together with Yoav from RealSense Studio) that demonstrates the 3D printing process using a hologram featured on the reality).

Another very exciting collection will be soon launched together in collaboration with Prusa Research company for FDM processes of wearable shoes. I worked closely with their maker-lab, and we made huge progress, the shoes are 100% wearable with multi-color and flexible materials!

Stratasys and Goldstein Collaboration

What is currently being worked on for you within the 3D printing world?

I am a great believer in collaboration and partnership with great people and open-minded companies. I want to continuously break boundaries, that is my core value, and I understand that in order to do that, I must turn to other disciplines and utilize what they have to offer. The ability to combine both worlds of past and future technique has a big impact on both my past and current projects. This is my take on the future of the 3D printing world.

Harnessing the power of the new technology and utilizing traditional techniques helped me create my own design language. I think that the ability to be open minded in the design process enables me to achieve my goals. I am a great believer of trying new methods, and not putting limits. This works because the design process has ups and downs, and from some failures and material tryout, you can reach better-designed results.

How was it to partner with Stratasys so early on in your journey?

My 3D printing journey started in a small room in my parent’s house, which I filled with 2 desktop printers. That room became my very own printing lab, where I got to experience, try-out materials and utilize the good old “trial and error” method.

I was fortunate enough to gain that experience, because I believe that is what enabled me to work with a “tip of the spear” company such as Stratasys.

The collaboration with Stratasys established after I had many “flight hours”, examples and tryouts. We partnered up during my last year studies. As my vision was to integrate colors inside my printed projects, They allow me to carry out my vision and turn it into reality. I’ve been incredibly lucky, and honored, especially knowing it came at such an early stage of my career. And it also makes me very proud.

I worked closely with the R&D team, and therefore, we shared the same vision of pushing the boundaries of the technology through design research. During the making process, we made some very interesting tryouts with the ability to control any voxel (3D pixel). At the same time, our research was growing, I made it into the final stage of numerous worldwide competitions and exhibitions (‘Talente’ & Milan Design Week), so we were continuing our collaboration for specific events that lead to new developments and exciting processes in each of the projects.

Woven 3D Print Shoes

Do you wish to branch out of just 3D printing? 

I wish to further develop in the field of augmented/virtual reality.

3D printing is already well integrated into our lives and in many industries. From medicine to automobiles, furniture, military equipment, housing, fashion, etc.

I believe in the future of 3D printing and its applications. I also believe that 3D printing is directly linked to 3D scanning and ARVR applications and that this technology will completely alter the user experience in public sites and will be adding new features to the digital medium.

The adoption of the technology by museums to reach new levels of audience experience- multi sensational- rather than just viewing. I believe AR will soon be in every museum, using the newest technology for public use, and even controlling our experiences in different senses- not just by looking at an art piece.

I’m also very interested in the smart- textile field, adding new reactions for textile by using programming software. I find especially the 4D printing process very interesting topic to work on, creating 3D objects that change their shape over time.

What are some key skills needed to be a designer within the 3D printing world?

I believe that the main key is determination. Not to be afraid of failure. 3D printing can be very attractive on the one hand, but on the other hand, it is a relatively new technology, there are some limits and tons of failures in the making process. It takes time unti you figure out the path to the final project, it takes time and extra effort.

Being a Maker- For me, to be a designer in the 3D printing world means to be a ‘maker’, I believe in hard work from the beginning. You need to be experimental with many technology techniques. Building your own printer and so on are examples of how I describe a ‘maker’.

Professionalism and expertise- 3D designing and printing is just like programming. You must “study the language”. You must learn the 3D software skills, be an expert in your field. Luckily, in our times, this information is approachable by everybody via the internet. It is possible to study everything you set your mind to, every single feature is fully covered.

Independence and self-confidence – I believe to fully be in control of your designs, anyone that wishes to be a designer in the 3D printing world, should do the work on his own, and not rely on others people’s skills. The making process changes the way the final object will appear, and for me, this is the main freedom space, that you have the ability to bring your design from your imagination into reality and constantly improve it upon your request.

Who are organizations you want to partner or collaborate with in the future?

I want to continue my work with the partners that supported me and have been fantastic in our collaboration: Stratasys, Prusa Research and Swarovski.

I believe the future of my work also lays in collaborating with companies that have new technological developments and have design potential that can become a platform for combining my design visions.  I would love to work with researchers of innovation in material research such as Neri Oxman and designers working in the field such as Iris Van Herpen. I’d like to extend the collaboration for shoe design with companies that develop 3D printed shoes such as Adidas.

Designers are not fully on the 3D printing wave just yet, how does it feel to be an early adopter?

It’s extremely exciting to be a part of a relatively small group that consists of designers and makers, who are investigating into how design can be developed in a sustainable and innovative way, using 3D printing technology.

This era is the most stirring time for pushing the boundaries of this technology, and I’m looking forward to working on new projects that will inspire me to think about “re-inventing” our future.

I feel that there is so much space for designers to grow in this field, working together with researchers and scientists all while keeping an open mind for new opportunities.

I feel blessed and extremely lucky to have become an early adopter in this field. It is a magical time filled with opportunities to seize and enjoy and to continue being excited from any new features, ideas, and projects.

I think 3D printing has great potential in so many fields, and design is one of the most exciting uses for this technology, clearing the way for further development of Art and Design (and maybe the concept of fashion and design as art), presenting each artist’s point of view the production process, from imagination to reality.  

Where do you see the field of 3D printing and fashion in 5 years?

I see 3D body scan as a key process that will be an integral part of any fashion development department. I believe that 5 years from now, personalization will receive a different meaning and will bring a drastic change in the fashion industry, moving from mass production to one of a kind customizable piece.

In my opinion, another upcoming major change that will take fashion design forward is the ability to design your own clothing- the customer will be his own designer by, ‘pushing buttons’ (by simplifying the design and programming software) for producing his favorite design.

I’ve also found the development of flexible material as a very important process for 3D printed fashion, and the development of new material will be a major step for 3D printed textile to make 3D printing – wearable.

Where do you see yourself in 5 years?

With 3D printing and 3D scanning, we can utilize the new technology to develop tailored pieces and fit to measure clothing for individuals. I want to take this a step further and produce customized clothes, based on body scans, ready-to-wear fashion and I hope to have designers and partners in the future, bringing innovative approach into daily production methods of fashion.

In the next two years, I will be studying at the Royal College of Arts in London, in the master’s program for smart textile developments called ‘Soft Systems’.

I believe this upcoming period will greatly influence and affect my career, and I hope that 5 years from today I will be able to continue developing my design language, and open my own brand, start-up, lab and continue researching and developing the wearable technology field. I hope to continue being thrilled and excited from any new project, any new printing method and constantly breaking the boundaries of the latest technology 

Massive 3D Dataset Helps Robots Understand What Things Are

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Via IEEE Spectrum

Nobody has seen every single lamp there is. But in most cases, we can walk into someone’s house for the first time and easily identify all their lamps and how they work. Every once in a while, of course, there will be something incredibly weird that’ll cause you to have to ask, “Uh, is that a lamp? How do I turn it on?” But most of the time, our generalized mental model of lamps keeps us out of trouble.

It’s helpful that lamps, along with other categories of objects, have (by definition) lots of pieces in common with each other. Lamps usually have bulbs in them. They often have shades. There’s probably also a base to keep it from falling over, a body to get it off the ground, and a power cord. If you see something with all of those characteristics, it’s probably a lamp, and once you know that, you can make educated guesses about how to usefully interact with it.

This level of understanding is something that robots tend to be particularly bad at, which is a real shame because of how useful it is. You might even argue that robots will have to understand objects on a level close to this if we’re ever going to trust them to operate autonomously in unstructured environments. At the 2019 Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) this week, a group of researchers from Stanford, UCSD, SFU, and Intel are announcing PartNet, a huge database of common 3D objects that are broken down and annotated at the level required to, they hope, teach a robot exactly what a lamp is.

See more!

3D Printing & the Circular Economy Part 3: Injection Molding

Injection Molding Diagram

As referred to in our previous article, injection molding refers to when plastic pellets are pressed into a mold cavity and under pressure and heat become a certain shape. Injection molding produces low scrap rates relative to other traditional manufacturing processes like CNC machining which cut away substantial percentages of an original plastic block or sheet. This however can be a negative relative to additive manufacturing processes like 3D printing that have even lower scrap rates. Overall this is a method that does not produce a lot of scrap through initial production. The downsides that are associated with injection molding include high costs in terms of startup, molding, and tooling. We will compare this manufacturing technique in terms of sustainability vs additive manufacturing.

Transportation waste is not as large of a concern when it comes to injection molding. It is important to have one’s material ready before they are to place it into an injection molding apparatus. The layout of one’s factory or fabrication environment is more critical towards this type of waste. Similar thoughts can be arrived at in terms of additive manufacturing. One typically must feed an additive manufacturing device with material, and transportation of materials is reliant upon the layout of one’s factory or fabrication environment.

Mold Cavitation

Inventory waste is something to keep in mind for this type of manufacturing. There is a high production rate that occurs with an injection molding system. This rate is reliant on two factors:

  1. Cycle time
  2. Mold Cavitation

Cycle time refers to how long it takes to complete a function, job, or task from start to finish. Cycle time is used in differentiating total duration of a process from its run time. Mold cavitation refers to the creation of an empty space that forms the basis of our molding process. So depending on the size of a mold, the cycle time shall vary. One can create a large amount of product fairly quickly with an injection mold system. This can lead to extra inventory than needed if organizations are freely creating objects for a 3rd party. This could be a case where a supplier is just making bulk production for when a 3rd party company needs more product at a later date. Additive manufacturing production rate is based on cycle time and the size of the object to be printed. This causes less inventory waste as there is a lot of time associated with printing a lot of materials at the moment.

Cycle Time

Waiting is a large differentiator in terms of injection molding vs additive manufacturing. 3D Printing technology has vastly increased over the years in terms of efficiency and speed. However, processes such as injection molding, have well established production rates that have been sharpened through decades of use.

Over-processing is not as much of a concern for both of these methods of manufacturing. Injection molding and 3D printing are both great at building quick prototypes of designs. I would argue that the biggest pain point is under processing. Post processing is a big issue when it comes to 3D printers. An injection molded part does have issues in terms of post processing, but not as glaring as most 3D Printing systems at the moment. This then leads to more time and energy spent on production.

Plastic and the Circular Economy

Finally, we will discuss the ability to recycle and reuse products that have been created through injection molding. Re-melting & melt filtration are required for the recycling of injection molded parts. Proper re-melting of the recycled material occurs under very low shear rates in the extruder and at the lower end of the melting temperature. Shear rate refers to the rate at which a progressive shearing deformation is applied to some material. The shearing deformation refers to when there is a deformation of a material substance in which parallel internal surfaces slide past one another. The objective is to gently re-melt the original material, which ensures maintenance of the material properties. A proper melt filtration process will remove any contaminants in the melt like cellulose, metal or wood pieces. Filtration refers to any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separates solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.  State of the art melt filtration is fully automated and does not require manual operation steps. The melt is filtered continuously at low pressure and can remove particles as small as 70 microns in diameter.  Similar processes can be applied to 3D printing materials as well.

Overproduction is a key point in terms of sustainability within both of these processes. It is important to consider the high startup costs associated with injection molding. It typically requires a lot of money to build objects through injection molding because it is a process that creates objects in large quantities. This can lead to having to hold various products within an inventory for an extended period of time. This is waste as these products may have been created without a definite need for them in the present. 3D Printing takes more time to create products, but they can be done with an intent to make a specific amount for an order instead of printing extra for use later.

Throughout this series, it is important to recognize that 3D Printing is a great solution. We still have to be critical of it as a viable option in traditional manufacturing settings. We must have a critical eye in terms of waste reduction. This also must include waste reduction in terms of faulty processes. This will allow us to have an interesting examination of the circular economy.